Polygon Zero announced this Monday, January 10, through its Twitter account, the launch of its innovative test system and an important milestone for zero-knowledge cryptography and Ethereum scaling: Plonky2.
“Polygon Zero’s mission is simple: use proof of zero knowledge to scale Ethereum to one billion users, without compromising decentralization or security. Achieving this requires fast and efficient test systems. Today, we are pleased to share Plonky2, an important milestone for zero-knowledge cryptography”, he said through an article posted on his website.
The company explained that Plonky2 is a recursive SNARK that is 100 times faster than existing alternatives and natively compatible with Ethereum. Combine PLONK and FRI to get the best of STARK, with fast testing and no reliable configuration, and the best of SNARK, with support for recursion and low cost of verification on Ethereum.
Similarly, he noted that Plonky2 represents the latest step in Polygon’s ongoing commitment to building the future of Ethereum, and we are proud to share our work with the Ethereum community.
According to the company, if zero-knowledge tests have one superpower, it’s recursion. SNARKs can verify arbitrary computations, and since verifying one SNARK is a computation, SNARKs can verify other SNARKs.
The company indicated that Plonky2 also allows us to accelerate test times for tests that do not involve recursion. With FRI, you can have quick tests that are large (so they are more expensive to verify on Ethereum), or you can have slow tests that are small. Builds that use FRI, like the STARKs that Starkware uses in its ZK-rollups, have a choice; they cannot have maximally fast test times and test sizes that are small enough to reasonably check on Ethereum.
In his view, Plonky2 is natively compatible with Ethereum. Plonky2 requires only keccak-256 to verify a test. We have estimated that the gas cost to verify a plonky2 size optimized test on Ethereum will be about 1 million gas.
“However, this cost is dominated by CALLDATA’s costs to publish the test on Ethereum. If the price of CALLDATA is changed in EIP-4488, the cost of verifying a plonky2 test will be reduced to between 170,000 and 200,000 gas, which could make it not only the fastest test system, but also the cheapest to check on Ethereum, “he added.